Mike has practiced land use and environmental law for 38 years, and is recognized for his extensive knowledge in California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA) litigation and compliance. He co-authored the two-volume treatise Practice Under the California Environmental Quality Act, the CEQA treatise most often cited by California courts, which was first published in 1993, has been updated every calendar year since, and is now in its second edition. He is recognized in numerous publications as one of the leading environmental and land use lawyers in California, and he has been named as one of the top 100 Northern California lawyers for the last eleven years.
Unparalleled Experience In Land Use And Environmental Law
Mike represents businesses and public agencies which are navigating California's permitting and environmental impact review processes with the goal of obtaining approval of development projects and plans, and associated environmental impact reports. He also represents businesses and agencies in defending project approvals against land use and environmental lawsuits challenging those approval decisions.
Supreme Court, Appellate, And Trial Court Litigation Throughout California
Mike has represented clients in land use and environmental cases at all levels of the California courts and throughout the state. He has defended projects approvals against challenges under CEQA, the Planning and Zoning Law, and the initiative and referendum provisions of the Elections Code. He has litigated projects from the North Coast redwood forests to the Sierras to the Colorado River and desert highlands, in addition to downtown and suburban development.
Mike also has substantial experience in negotiating and settling land use disputes, and has reached favorable settlements in numerous matters, including port developments, aggregate and hard rock mines, planned residential communities, and environmental cleanups. He regularly represents clients in both mediations and in private settlement negotiations.
Environmental Impact Compliance And Litigation
Mike has a particular specialty in environmental impact reviews under CEQA and the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and frequently handles cutting edge CEQA cases. He defended and successfully settled the first CEQA lawsuit over greenhouse gas emissions, the California Attorney General's challenge to the San Bernardino County general plan. He later worked with the County in formulating the greenhouse gas reduction plan and associated environmental impact report pursuant to that settlement. Most recently, he won a California Supreme Court ruling upholding the greenhouse gas emissions analysis in the EIR for the San Diego Association of Governments regional transportation plan.
State Agency Expertise
In addition to handling entitlement and environmental impact issues in numerous local jurisdictions, Mike has a broad range of experience in handling matters before specialized state agencies. Mike has handled matters before the State Lands Commission, the California Energy Commission, the California Public Utilities Commission, regional water boards, the California Building Standards Commission, the Coastal Commission, the California Historical Resources Commission, and the California Native American Heritage Commission.
Land Use Ballot Measures And Litigation
Mike also advises clients and litigates in the area of land use ballot measures. This includes both the substantive validity of initiatives and referenda, as well as legal issues relating to ballot arguments and signature-gathering. Mike co-authored the Solano Press 1990 text, Land Use Initiatives and Referenda in California.
Obtained a settlement in a CEQA action, on behalf of a citizen opposed to a port authority's expansion project, that provided for various project revisions and payment of attorney's fees.
Represented the University of California in the state and federal natural resource permitting for the 10th UC campus to be located on vernal pool grassland habitat in Eastern Merced County.
Residential Developments. Represented residential developers and investors in residential projects in obtaining entitlements for development, defending court challenges to such entitlements, and where possible, settling and resolving litigation disputes. Litigation and settlement work includes substantive land use laws, CEQA, and species and habitat planning laws.
Solid Waste Projects. Represented a variety of landfills and solid waste facilities in local and state permitting for expansions, additional waste streams, and proposed new landfills, and in trial and appellate court litigation defending such approvals.
University Research Campus. For a national research campus, represented university in formulating and defending environmental impact report for 20-year long range development plan. Legal advice on specific development projects. Prevailed in every CEQA challenge filed over 15-year period.
Alternative Energy Projects. Defended several wind and solar projects in the central valley and desert regions against environmental impact challenges in federal and state court. Assisted project developers with completion of EIR and EIS documents under NEPA and CEQA.
Represented an industry association in an action against the Bay Area Air Quality Management District's adoption of new CEQA thresholds, which are widely regarded by expert planners as an obstacle to the goals of encouraging infill and transit oriented development.
Secured a victory and resolved a conflict in the Court of Appeal whether opponents of projects found to qualify for an exemption from CEQA must object at a public hearing before the lead agency in order to maintain a legal challenge.
Sunol Quarry Litigation. Advised quarry operator on litigation strategy for a ballot measure/CEQA case relating to a proposed quarry expansion in the Sunol area.
Town of Windsor Urban Growth Boundary. Prepared the draft of a general plan amendment text for an initiative ballot measure setting an urban growth boundary for the Town of Windsor.
Represented a mining developer in successfully permitting a new instream mining project on the Russian River, including an innovative adaptive management program to resolve environmental concerns. Successfully defended the project against CEQA challenges, and settled the litigation on favorable terms.
Friends of Sierra Madre v. City of Sierra Madre. Represented the city in the trial court, Court of Appeal, and the California Supreme Court, in an action regarding the question of whether CEQA applies to council-sponsored ballot measures.
Alameda County Measure D Litigation. Represented homebuilders in opposition to Alameda County's Measure D, which established strict urban growth boundary throughout eastern Alameda County. Prepared counter-measure alternative to Measure D, and prosecuted litigation against Measure D through trial court proceedings.
City of San Ramon Measure G Litigation. Represented a homebuilder in litigation challenging the application of "Measure G" (amending the general plan to restrict hillside development, among other things) to limit a housing project proposed in San Ramon.
El Dorado County Measure Y Litigation. Represented a coalition of property owners in challenging the provisions of Measure Y, a growth control and traffic limitation measure in El Dorado County.
Downtown Master Plans & Projects. Represented public agencies and project applicants in permitting and defending urban master planned projects, including substantial downtown retail and mixed-use projects in Northern and Southern California.
Public Agency CEQA Compliance & Litigation. Represented a variety of cities, counties, and special districts in CEQA compliance and litigation regarding general plans, specific plans, climate plans and protocols, habitat plans, and agency-sponsored projects, including trial and appellate litigation. Projects have included habitat enhancement developments, water supply facilities, airport and port expansions, rail transit projects, master planned residential projects, and downtown development and redevelopment projects.
Transmission Lines & Pipelines. Represented proponents of new transmission lines and pipelines in permitting and CEQA review, and in subsequent CEQA litigation successfully defending project approval.
Mining Projects. Represented mining clients in valley, foothill, Sierra and North Coast regions in permitting and defending hard rock, terrace and instream mining projects. Successfully settled CEQA litigation challenges, and prevailed in trial and appellate decisions on other projects.
Homebuilders. Represented a variety of homebuilders throughout the state in the permitting and CEQA review for residential development projects. Resolved tribal claims relating to implementation of approved projects. Represent homebuilding organizations in CEQA legislation in Sacramento, and amicus advocacy in appellate courts throughout the state.
In-fill Housing Developments. Advised a number of developers regarding in-fill development, including CEQA review, use of CEQA exemptions, and traffic mitigation and related issues.
Transportation Projects. Represented tribal government in completing the approval, environmental review, and construction of a new interchange to serve tribal lands. Represented local rail authority in preparing EIR for new rail line, and defending EIR at California Public Utilities Commission against legal challenges.
Environmental Cleanups. Advised clients on environmental impact reports for major environmental cleanups, including resolution of environmental mitigation claims.
Hospitals and Medical Campus Development. Successfully permitted and defended EIR for new hospital campus in Sonoma County, including defense of land use and CEQA claims. Advised both public and private developers on hospital projects.
Solid Waste. Represented a variety of landfills and solid waste facilities in local and state permitting for expansions, additional waste streams, and proposed new landfills.
- Press Release, Best Lawyers, 8.18.22
- Press Release, Best Lawyers, 8.18.22
- Press Release, Super Lawyers, 8.1.22
- Press Release, Chambers USA, 6.3.22
- Press Release, Best Lawyers®, 8.19.21
- Press Release, Super Lawyers, 7.7.21
- Press Release, Chambers USA, 5.20.21
- Press Release, Best Lawyers®, 8.21.20
- Press Release, Best Lawyers®, 8.21.20
- Press Release, Super Lawyers, 7.1.20
- Twenty-Nine Cox, Castle & Nicholson Attorneys Have Been Selected for the 2020 Edition of The Best Lawyers in America®.Press Release,
The Best Lawyers in America®, 8.16.19
- News, The Best Lawyers in America®, 8.16.19
- Fourteen Cox, Castle & Nicholson Attorneys Recognized As 2019 Northern California Super Lawyers & Rising StarsPress Release, Super Lawyers, 7.15.19
- Press Release, Who's Who Legal, 11.7.18
- Twenty-Six Cox, Castle & Nicholson Attorneys Have Been Selected for the 2019 Edition of The Best Lawyers in America®.Press Release,
The Best Lawyers in America®, 8.15.18
- Fifteen Cox, Castle & Nicholson Attorneys Recognized As 2018 Northern California Super Lawyers & Rising StarsPress Release, Northern California Super Lawyers, 7.13.18
- Mike Zischke Quoted In San Francisco Business Times Article - This Is Why Housing Is Expensive In San FranciscoNews, San Francisco Business Times, 2.15.18
- Mike Zischke Featured In Bisnow Article - How California’s Environmental Law Became A Weapon Against DevelopersNews, Bisnow, 12.19.17
- Twenty-Three Cox, Castle & Nicholson Attorneys Have Been Selected for the 2018 edition of The Best Lawyers in America®.Press Release, The Best Lawyers in America®, 8.15.17
- Ten Cox, Castle & Nicholson Attorneys Recognized As 2017 Northern California Super Lawyers & Rising StarsPress Release, Northern California Super Lawyers, 7.7.17
- Twenty-One Cox, Castle & Nicholson Attorneys Have Been Selected for the 2017 edition of The Best Lawyers in America®.Press Release, The Best Lawyers in America®, 9.12.16
- Twenty-Two Cox, Castle & Nicholson Attorneys Have Been Selected for the 2017 edition of The Best Lawyers in America®.Press Release, 9.12.16
- Michael Zischke was named the 2017 Litigation – Real Estate “Lawyer of the Year” in San Francisco by The Best Lawyers in America®.Press Release, The Best Lawyers in America®, 9.12.16
- Eleven Cox, Castle & Nicholson Attorneys Recognized As 2016 Northern California Super Lawyers & Rising StarsPress Release, Northern California Super Lawyers, 7.8.16
- Press Release, Legal 500, 7.6.16
- Press Release, Best Lawyers in America, 8.17.15
- News, Super Lawyers, 7.7.15
- News, Legal 500, 6.5.15
- News, Daily Journal, 8.25.14
- Press Release, 7.18.14
- Press Release, 7.17.14
- MCLE Self-Study Article: The Impact Of Koontz On Exactions And Environmental Mitigation In CaliforniaNews, Public Law Journal, 11/13/2013
- News, Daily Journal, 11.8.13
- Press Release, Super Lawyers, 7.1.13
- Press Release, Chambers USA 2013, 6.18.13
- News, Daily Journal, 5.8.13
- News, Law360, 3.7.13
- News, The Recorder, 3.1.13
- Press Release, Super Lawyers, 12.6.12
- News, Daily Journal, 11.26.12
- News, The Recorder, 11.2.12
- News, Law360.com, 11.1.12
- News, The Sacramento Bee, 9.9.12
- Twenty-three Cox Castle & Nicholson LLP Attorneys Are Selected To Be Published In The 2012 Super Lawyers Business EditionPress Release, 9.4.12
- News, Law360.com, 8.15.12
- Eight Cox, Castle & Nicholson LLP Attorneys Are Recognized As 2012 Northern California Super LawyersPress Release, Super Lawyers, 7.6.12
- News, Daily Journal, 6.15.12
- News, Daily Journal, 4.23.12
- Press Release, The Recorder, 4.11.12
- Fourteen Lawyers from Cox, Castle & Nicholson, LLP are Selected to be Included in The Best Lawyers in America 2012.Press Release, Best Lawyers in America, 11.8.11
- News, Daily Journal, 9.12.11
- Twenty-three Cox Castle & Nicholson LLP Attorneys Are Selected To Be Published In The 2011 Super Lawyers Business EditionPress Release, 9.1.11
- News, Daily Journal, 8.8.11
- News, Daily Journal, 4.27.11
- News, San Francisco Chronicle, 2.4.11
- News, Daily Journal, 2.3.11
- News, Daily Journal, 12.14.10
- Seven Cox, Castle & Nicholson LLP Attorneys Are Recognized As 2010 Northern California Super LawyersPress Release, Super Lawyers, 8.1.10
- Press Release, 6.27.10
- Eighteen Cox, Castle & Nicholson LLP Attorneys Are Recognized As 2010 Super Lawyers Corporate CounselPress Release, Super Lawyers, 5.1.10
- News, Daily Journal, 4.2.10
- Twelve Cox, Castle & Nicholson LLP Attorneys Are Recognized By The The Best Lawyers In America® 2010 EditionPress Release, Best Lawyers in America, 8.4.09
- Press Release, Northern California Super Lawyers, 7.24.09
- Press Release, Chambers USA, 6.16.09
- Twelve Cox, Castle & Nicholson LLP Attorneys Are Recognized By The Best Lawyers In America® 2009 EditionPress Release, Best Lawyers of America, 9.30.08
- Press Release, CCN Press Release, 5.28.08
- News, The Recorder, 1.23.08
- Environmental Suits raise question of standardsNews, 09.10.07
- Attorney General Strikes Deal with San Bernardino CountyNews, 08.27.07
- Brown Strikes Deal with San Bernardino"News, 08.22.07
- America's Leading Lawyers for BusinessNews, 06.15.07
- Disney Rift With its City Could EndureNews, 04.26.07
- Webinar, 5.21.21
- Sponsorship, La Quinta Resort & Spa, La Quinta, CA, 11/23/2019-11/24/2019
- Seminar, Intercontinental Los Angeles Century City Hotel, Los Angeles, CA, 4.27.16
- Conference, 10.6.15
- Conference, 10.5.15
- Webinar, 6.25.15
- LSI - Land Use Planning in California Conference6.24.15
- Seminar, Intercontinental Los Angeles Century City Hotel, Los Angeles, California, 6.24.15
- County Counsels' Association - Spring 2014 Land Use Conference4.30.15
- Conference, Westin Hotel - Sacramento, CA, 3.9.15
- Conference, DoubleTree Suites, Santa Monica, California, 1.20.15
- Conference, Embassy Suites Monterey Bay-Seaside - Seaside, CA, 12.5.14
- Conference, Hotel Nikko - San Francisco, CA, 12.4.14
- Conference, Hotel Nikko, San Francisco, 1.31.14
- Conference, Hyatt Regency Hotel, 1.9.14
- Conference, The Meritage Resort & Spa, Napa, California, 4.21.13
- Conference, The Fairmont San Francisco , San Francisco, California, 12.13.12
- Conference, Sacramento, California, 12.6.12
- CBIA's 43rd Select Conference on Industry Litigation11.17.12
- California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA): New Legislative and Regulatory Developments, and Practical Guidance Tips for Navigating the ChangesConference, San Francisco Marriott Union Square Hotel, San Francisco, California, 4.30.12
- Conference, Millennium Biltmore Hotel , Los Angeles , California, 1.21.11
- Conference, La Costa Resort, Carlsbad, California, 11.3.10
- Conference, Millennium Biltmore, Los Angeles , California, 9.16.10
- Hotel Nikko, San Francisco, 8.19.10
- Webinar, 12.3.09
- Conference, Double Tree Hotel, Santa Monica, California, 9.25.09
- Conference, Fairmont, San Francisco, California, 9.21.09
- Conference, Los Angeles, California, 8.14.08
- Conference, Grand Hyatt San Francisco Hotel, San Francisco, California, 7.29.08
- Seminar, Hotel Nikko, San Francisco, California, 6.12.08
- Conference, Hilton La Jolla Torrey Pines, La Jolla, California, 5.3.08
- CEQA Update – What Did the Courts Do to Us this Year?12.6.07
- AB 32 & CEQA; Impacts on the Business of Real Estate11.2.07
- Greenhouse Gas Emissions and CEQA/NEPA:Many Questions, Few Answers10.18.07
- CEQA and Climate Change: A Brave New World10.10.07
- CEQA in Courts - New Interpretations8.20.07
- New Legislation Expands Campaign Contribution Laws toInclude Local Elected Officials - Contributions May Now Require Elected Officials to Recuse Themselves from Voting on ProjectsClient Alert, 10.17.22
- Second Court Weighs in on Water Board Powers – This Time Expanding the Scope of Water Board Wetland Permitting AuthorityClient Alert, 1.5.21
- Client Alert, 1.14.19
- The California Supreme Court Issues Important New Rulings on Analysis of Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Fully Protected Species, and Requirements for California Environmental Quality Act LitigationClient Alert, 11.30.15
- The Decision in Berkeley Hillside: The California Supreme Court Clarifies the Rules for Using Categorical Exemptions Under CEQAClient Alert, 3.2.15
- California Supreme Court Decides CEQA Environmental Review Not Required For Council or Board Adoption of Voter-Sponsored Ballot MeasuresClient Alert, 8.7.14
- Privileges and Waivers and Records, Oh My!Article, Public Law Journal, Volume 37, Number 2, Spring 2014
- The Impact of Koontz on Exactions and Environmental Mitigation in CaliforniaArticle, Public Law Journal, Volume 36, Number 4, Fall 2013
- "In With A Roar, Out with a Meow" - The California Legislature Passes A Few Minor CEQA Changes As The 2013 Session ClosesClient Alert, CCN Client Alert, 9.25.13
- Supreme Court Sets Standards for Using Future Environmental Baselines in Environmental Impact ReportsClient Alert, CCN Client Alert, 8.9.13
- The United States Supreme Court Holds That the Denial of a Land Use Permit can be a Violation of Constitutional Law When the Denial is Based on an Invalid Demand for MoneyClient Alert, CCN Client Alert, 6.25.13
- Client Alert, CCN Client Alert, 4.11.13
- Article, The Recorder, 1.4.13
- Article, The Recorder, 11.20.12
- New Court Decision Creates Uncertainty Over How CEQA Applies to Council Actions on Voter-Circulated Initiative MeasuresClient Alert, CCN Client Alert, 11.9.12
- Client Alert, CCN Quarterly CEQA Case Law Update, 8.8.12
- Client Alert, CCN Client Alert, 7.10.12
- California Supreme Court Confirms That Exhaustion of Administrative Remedies Required Before Challenging CEQA ExemptionClient Alert, CCN Client Alert, 6.14.12
- Second District Court of Appeal Affirms Agency Discretion to Determine the Baseline for Environmental Impact Review Under CEQAClient Alert, CCN Client Alert, 6.6.12
- Client Alert, CCN Quarterly CEQA Case Law Update, May 2012
- Client Alert, CCN Quarterly CEQA Case Law Update, February 2012
- Client Alert, CCN Client Alert, 1.13.12
- Client Alert, CCN Quarterly CEQA Case Law Update, November 2011
- Client Alert, CCN Quarterly CEQA Case Law Update, August 2011
- Client Alert, CCN Quarterly CEQA Case Law Update, May 2011
- Client Alert, CCN Quarterly CEQA Case Law Update, February 2011
- Climate Plan Enjoined? Trial Court Issues Proposed Decision Regarding Implementation of AB 32 Scoping PlanClient Alert, CCN Client Alert, 2.1.11
- Client Alert, CCN Client Alert, 1.14.11
- Client Alert, CCN Client Alert, 11.29.10
- Court Of Appeal Confirms That The Scope Of Subsequent CEQA Review Is Limited By The Scope Of The Agency's Subsequent ApprovalClient Alert, CCN Client Alert, 10.25.10
- Client Alert, CCN Quarterly CEQA Case Law Update, October 2010
- Client Alert, CCN Quarterly CEQA Case Law Update, July 2010
- Client Alert, CCN Client Alert, 6.2.10
- California's First Published Court Decision On CEQA And Greenhouse Gas Emissions Sets Aside "Cursorily Described" Mitigation MeasuresClient Alert, CCN Client Alert, 4.27.10
- Client Alert, CCN Quarterly CEQA Case Law Update, April 2010
- California Supreme Court Rejects The Use Of Permit Limits As The Environmental Baseline For New ProjectsClient Alert, CCN Client Alert, April 2010
- California Supreme Court Rejects Attempts to Undermine CEQA's Statue of LimitationsClient Alert, April 2010
- California Supreme Court Upholds 30-day Statute of Limitations for CEQA Lawsuits Challenging Subsequent Approval Decisions by Lead AgenciesClient Alert, CCN Client Alert, 2.12.10
- Client Alert, CCN Client Alert, January 2010
- Client Alert, CCN Client Alert, 11.5.09
- Client Alert, CCN Client Alert, 10.8.09
- Client Alert, CCN Quarterly CEQA Case Law Update, October 2009
- Client Alert, CCN Client Alert, 9.21.09
- Client Alert, CCN Client Alert, 9.18.09
- San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District to Consider Adoption of Policies and Guidance Regarding Evaluation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions Under CEQAClient Alert, CCN Client Alert, 9.17.09
- Client Alert, Client Alert, 7.6.09
- Client Alert, Quarterly CEQA Case Law Update, Spring 2009
- Article, California Real Property Journal, Spring 2009
- Office of Planning and Research Transmits Draft CEQA Guidelines on Greenhouse Gas Emissions to the Resources Agency for Certification and AdoptionClient Alert, CCN Client Alert, 4.14.09
- Client Alert, CCN Quarterly CEQA Case Law Update, Winter 2009
- Client Alert, CCN Client Alert, 3.26.09
- Client Alert, CCN Client Alert, 2.2.09
- Office Of Planning And Research Issues Preliminary Draft Of CEQA Guidelines On Greenhouse Gas EmissionsClient Alert, CCN Client Alert, 1.7.09
- Client Alert, CCN Client Alert, 11.20.08
- The California Supreme Court Sets New Rules For Determining When Preliminary Agreements For Development Projects Require Environmental Impact ReviewClient Alert, CCN Client Alert, 10.31.08
- Client Alert, CCN Client Alert, 10.24.08
- California Supreme Court Bay-Delta EIR Decision Upholds Limiting Project Alternatives Based On Project Objectives, Upholds General Water Supply Analysis, And Upholds Overall Programmatic Level Of Impact ReviewArticle, California Land Use Law & Policy Reporter, 7.1.08
- Client Alert, CCN Client Alert, 6.20.08
- California Supreme Court Upholds Bay-Delta Environmental Impact Report, Including Alternatives Analysis And Programmatic Level Of Impact ReviewClient Alert, CCN Client Alert, 6.10.08
- State Supreme Court Provides Guidance on Water Supplies and CEQAArticle, 09.01.07
- Climate Change and the California Environmental Quality ActArticle, 07.01.07
- Evaluating Urban Decay Impacts in California Environmental Impact Reports: What Has Wal-Mark Done Now?Article, 07.01.07
- Water Supplies for New Housing Development: The California Supreme Court Wades In.Article, 02.26.07
- California Supreme Court Clarifies CEQA Requirements for Analysis of Water Supplies (PDF)Client Alert, 02.05.07
Awards & Affiliations
Honors & Recognitions
Best Lawyers, "Lawyers of the Year," 2012, 2014-2017, 2020, 2021, 2023
Best Lawyers, Environmental Law, Land Use and Zoning Law; Litigation-Environmental, Litigation-Land Use & Zoning; Real Estate Law, & Litigation - Real Estate; 2020-2023; ranked in various categories since 2006
National Law Journal, Real Estate/Construction Law Trailblazer, 2020.
Chambers USA, one of California’s leading attorneys in both environmental law and real estate/land use, 2003-2022
San Francisco Environmental Litigator of the Year, 2012
Northern California Super Lawyers, 2004-2021
Top 100 Northern California Super Lawyers, 2007-2020
Who’s Who Legal: Environment 2017-2019
Who’s Who Legal: Real Estate 2016
Legal 500, Land Use/Zoning, 2015
Real Property Advisory Committee, California Continuing Education of the Bar
Center for Law, Energy & Environment, Berkeley Law, Founding Member of Advisory Board
Lambda Alpha (honorary land economics society)
American College of Real Estate Lawyers
California Building Industry Association, Select Conference on Industry Litigation
San Francisco Lawyers Club, Board of Directors, 2001-2003
Environmental Law Section of the State Bar of California, Advisor, 1999-2004; Executive Committee, 1996-1999
Ecology Law Research Institute, Founding Member & Secretary, 1983-1999
Ecology Law Quarterly, Articles Editor, 1982
Legislative Assistant for Energy and Environmental Matters, Representative Bob Carr (D-Michigan) 1977-1979
Boys & Girls Clubs of Oakland, Board of Advisors, 1997-present; Director, 1986-1996;
Child Care Law Center, Board of Directors, 1999-2008
Bar & Court Admissions
- State Bar of California
- U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit
- U.S. District Court for the Central, Northern, and Southern Districts of California
J.D., University of California, Berkeley School of Law, 1982
B.A., Dartmouth College, 1977, magna cum laude